Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland, IPA: [ 'islant]) is located in the northwest corner of Europe country, whose territory includes the homonymous island and some small islands and adjacent islets in elocéano Atlantic between the rest of Europe and Greenland. 4 has a population of about 331,000 inhabitants and an area of 103 000 km².5 because of its location on the Mid-Atlantic ridge, is a country with great volcanic and geological activity; This factor greatly affects the landscape of Iceland's territory. The interior of the country consists of a plateau characterized pordesiertos, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Thanks to the effects of the Gulf Stream, has a temperate climate relative to its latitude and provides a habitable environment.
The first human settlement in Iceland dates back 874cuando, according to the Landnámabók or "Book of the settlement," the Norwegian leader Ingólfur Arnarson became the first permanent settler isla.6 7. Other navigators, as ElVikingo Faroese Naddodd, possible discoverer, they visited the island around the year 860 to pass over winter. However, they never founded a settlement there permanente.8 Over the following centuries, human groups Nordic and Gaelic origin settled in Iceland. Until the twentieth century, the population islandesadependía fishing and agriculture, and from 1262-1944 was part of the kingdoms of Norway and then Denmark. In the twentieth century, the country gained independence and the Icelandic economy developed rapidly.
Today has a market economy with relatively low taxes compared to other OECD countries, 9manteniendo a welfare state that provides universal health care and free their ciudadanos.10 In recent years, higher education became one of the wealthier, and countries in 2009 was classified by the UN as tHE THIRD most developed country world.3
In 2008, the Icelandic financial system collapsed, causing a severe economic contraction and demonstrations that led to advance the parliamentary elections, in which jóhanna sigurðardóttir won the first position parallel ministra.11 acquired importance the Icelandic known as Revolution, a series protests and movements of civic organization that together with the new government, resulted in the indictment of former Prime Minister of Iceland during the crisis, Geir Haarde, 12f referenda to decide on the payment of external debt of domestic banks and citizen process that investigation leading to changes in the Constitution that culminated in a draft constitution on July 29, 2011 to be discussed at the Parlamento.13
Iceland has a developed and technologically advanced society, whose culture is based on Norse heritage. Most of the population is of Celtic and Scandinavian origin. Official Language box is Icelandic, northern Germanic language which is closely related to Faroese and western Norwegian dialects. The country's cultural heritage includes traditional cuisine, art and literature.